United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Flag Royal coat of arms
"God Save the King/Queen"
the United Kingdom in 1921
Capital London
Languages English, Scots, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 •  1801–1820 George III
 • 1820–1830 George IV
 • 1830–1837 William IV
 • 1837–1901 Victoria
 • 1901–1910 Edward VII
 • After 1910 George V
Legislature Parliament
 •  Upper house House of Lords
 •  Lower house House of Commons
 •  Acts of Union 1 January 1801
 • Anglo-Irish Treaty 6 December 1921
 •  Irish Free State Constitution Act 6 December 1922
 • Titles amended 12 April 1927
Currency Pound sterling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Kingdom of Great Britain
Arms of Ireland (Historical) Kingdom of Ireland
United Kingdom Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Irish Free State Flag of Ireland.svg
Today part of Flag of Ireland Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union of 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united. In 1922, twenty-six of thirty-two counties of Ireland seceded to form the Irish Free State (later becoming the Republic of Ireland) and, to reflect the change in the United Kingdom's boundaries, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name of the UK Parliament to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

The period began with the newly formed United Kingdom defeating France in the Napoleonic Wars. As a direct result of this, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century. Great Britain and the north-east of Ireland industrialised rapidly, whereas the rest of Ireland did not, deepening economic and social disparities between them. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland, and increased calls for Irish land reform and the devolution of executive power. During and after the Great War, the rise of Irish nationalism and republicanism eventually culminated in the Irish War of Independence, and in 1922, the partition of Ireland between the newly founded Irish Free State and the north-east, which opted to remain part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland.

1801 to 1837Edit