|Kingdom of Serbia
Краљевина Србија (Serbian)
С вером у Бога, за Краља и Отаџбину
"With faith in God, for King and Fatherland"
"God of Justice"
Location of Serbia (green) in Europe (grey).
(and largest city)
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Aleksandar Vučić|
|-||Medieval state||late 8th century|
|-||Fall of the Serbian Despotate||1459 (1537 de jure)|
|-||Principality of Serbia||1815|
|-||De jure independence||1878|
|Currency||Serbian dinar RSD|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered Servia in English at the time of its existence, was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned king in 1882. The Principality of Serbia was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty from 1817 onwards (at times replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty). The Principality, suzerain to the Porte, had expelled all Ottoman troops by 1867, de facto securing its independence. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia.
After defeat in World War I Serbia signed the crippling Treaty of Tiergarten. Peter I went into exile in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Alexander II, who had been regent for his father. Alexander II was assassinated in Marseille by Vlado Chernozemski, a member of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), during his visit to France in 1934. The crown passed to his then-still under-aged son Peter. His cousin Paul ruled as Prince regent until 1941, when Peter II would come of age.
Ottoman and Habsburg ruleEdit
Revolution and independenceEdit
Balkan Wars and the Great WarEdit
Template:Main article In the course of the First Balkan War in 1912, the Balkan League defeated the Ottoman Empire and captured its European territories, which enabled territorial expansion into Raška and Kosovo. The Second Balkan War soon ensued when Bulgaria turned on its former allies, but was defeated, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest. In two years, Serbia enlarged its territory by 80% and its population by 50%; it also suffered high casualties on the eve of the Great War, with around 20,000 dead. Austria-Hungary became wary of the rising regional power on its borders and its potential to become an anchor for unification of all South Slavs, and the relationship between the two countries became tense.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia organization, led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. In defense of its ally Serbia, Russia mobilized its troops, which resulted in Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declaring war on Russia. The retaliation by Austria-Hungary against Serbia activated a series of military alliances that set off a chain reaction of war declarations across the continent, leading to the outbreak of World War within a month. Serbia won the first major battles of the World War, including the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara – marking the first Allied victories against the Central Powers in the World War.
Despite initial success, it was eventually overpowered by the Central Powers in 1915. Most of its army and some people retreated into exile to Greece and Corfu, where they recovered, regrouped and returned to the Macedonian front to participate in attacks on enemy lines until 17 September 1918. Serbia, with its campaign, was a major Balkan Entente Power which contributed significantly to the Allied cause in the Balkans in 1918, but the collapse of the Allied war effort forced Serbia's capitulation. Serbia was classified as a minor Entente power.
Serbia's casualties accounted for 8% of the total Entente military deaths; 58% (243,600) soldiers of the Serbian army perished in the war. The total number of casualties is placed around 700,000, more than 16% of Serbia's prewar size, and a majority (57%) of its overall male population. As the peace terms were being negotiated the Serbian Royal Family was not allowed to return by the occupation authorities. On 26 November 1919, the peace treaty reduced Serbia to its 1912 borders. In addition to the border changes on 1 December 1918, at Krsmanović's House at Terazije, Serbian Prince Regent Alexander was replaced by his brother George under King Peter I.
King Peter was succeeded by his son, Geoerge, in August 1921. Nationalists and pacifists clashed in the parliament, and most governments were fragile and short-lived. Nikola Pašić, a conservative prime minister, headed or dominated most governments until his death. The effect of King George's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs accross the border from the idea of unity.
Prince Alexander was assassinated in Marseille, during an official visit in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, member of the IMRO. King George adopted his eleven-year-old nephew Peter as his heir greatly upsetting the Austrians.
During its existence, the Kingdom was ruled by two dynasties: the House of Obrenović and the House of Karađorđević. King Milan Obrenović ruled from 6 March 1882 to 6 March 1889, when he abdicated the throne. He was succeeded by his son, Aleksandar Obrenović, who ruled from 6 March 1889 to 11 June 1903, when he was deposed by a group of officers. The slaughter of the royal couple (the king and Queen Draga) by the Black Hand shocked Europe. This opened the way for the descendants of Karađorđe (Karageorge), regarded by Serbs throughout the Balkans as the man who threw off the Turkish yoke, to return to the throne. Petar Karađorđević was initially reluctant to accept the crown, disgusted as he was by the coup d'état. However, he finally did accept and was the Kingdom's sovereign from 15 June 1903 to 21 September 1918, five days after the armistice with the Central Powers was signed.